The National Space Society vision is people living and working in space

Pioneering the Space Frontier

The Report of the National Commission on Space
1986
Table of Contents

Appendix

THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE (NCOS)

  • DR. LUIS W. ALVAREZ, Nobel Laureate Physicist, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Professor Emeritus, UC at Berkeley.
  • MR. NEIL A. ARMSTRONG, Chairman, CTA, Inc.; Former Astronaut; Commander,Gemini 8 and Apollo 11; First Man to walk on the Moon.
  • DR. PAUL J. COLEMAN, President, Universities Space Research Association; Assistant Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Professor,UCLA.
  • DR. GEORGE B. FIELD, Senior Physicist, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Professor, Harvard University.
  • LT. GEN. WILLIAM H. FITCH, USMC (RET.), Defense Consultant; Former Head of Marine Corps Aviation.
  • DR. CHARLES M. HERZFELD, Vice Chairman, Peterson, Jacobs, Ramo & Co.; Former Vice President, ITT Corporation; Former Director, Advanced Research Projects Agency.
  • DR. JACK L. KERREBROCK, Associate Dean of Engineering, MIT; Former Associate Administrator, NASA.
  • AMBASSADOR JEANE J. KIRKPATRICK, Professor, Georgetown University; Senior Fellow, American Enterprise Institute; Former Representative of the United States to the United Nations.
  • DR. GERARD K.O'NEILL, President, Space Studies Institute; CEO, Geostar Corporation.
  • DR. THOMAS O. PAINE, Chairman, NCOS: Former President, Northrop Corporation; Former Administrator, NASA.
  • GEN. BERNARD A. SCHRIEVER, USAF (RET.), Management Consultant, Schriever & McKee Inc.; Former Commander, Air Force Systems Command; Former Director, Air Force Ballistic Missile Program.
  • DR. KATHRYN D. SULLIVAN, Shuttle Astronaut; First American Woman to walk in space; Adjunct Professor of Geology, Rice University.
  • DR. DAVID C. WEBB, Consultant in the field of Space Development; Chairman, National Coordinating Committee for Space.
  • DR. LAUREL L. WILKENING, Vice Chairman, NCOS; Vice President of Research and Dean of the Graduate School, University of Arizona; Planetary Scientist.
  • BRIG. GEN. CHARLES E. YEAGER, USAF (RET.), Test Pilot; First man to break the sound barrier.

 

NON-VOTING MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE

CONGRESSIONAL ADVISORS:

  • SENATOR SLADE GORTON
  • SENATOR JOHN GLENN
  • REPRESENTATIVE DON FUQUA
  • REPRESENTATIVE MANUEL LUJAN

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS:

  • DR. ORVILLE BENTLEY, Department of Agriculture
  • MR. RICHARD SHAY, Department of Commerce
  • MR. ROBERT BRUMLEY, Department of Commerce
  • MR. ERICH BLOCH, National Science Foundation
  • DR. GEORGE KEYWORTH, Office of Science and Technology Policy
  • DR. JOHN McTAGUE, Office of Science and Technology Policy
  • AMBASSADOR JOHN NEGROPONTE, Department of State
  • MS. JENNIFER DORN, Department of Transportation
  • MS. MADELINE JOHNSON, Department of Transportation

 

STAFF OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON SPACE

  • MS. MARCIA SMITH, Executive Director
  • MR. THEODORE SIMPSON, Director of Planning
  • MR. LEONARD DAVID, Director of Research
  • MS. LINDA BILLINGS, Research Associate
  • MR. RICHARD DALBELLO, Research Associate
  • MS. JULIA SHISLER, Executive Assistant
  • MS. ELIZA-BETH PEASE, Administrative Assistant

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF DETAILED FROM THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

  • MS. MECHTHILD PETERSON, Director of Administration
  • MR. STEVEN HARTMAN, Presidential Management Intern
  • MS. THERESIA. WISE, Secretary
  • MS. MICHELLE THOMPSON, Secretary
  • MS. DAWN MOORE, Student Aide

CONTRACTORS

  • MR. S. NEIL HOSENBALL, General Counsel
  • MR. WILLIS SHAPLEY, Research Associate
  • MR. CLAYTON DURR, Research Associate
  • MS. MARY WARD, Secretary

 

GLOSSARY

  • Aerobrake: An "air brake" used to slow a spaceship with the upper layers of a planet's atmosphere to conserve the spaceship’s propellants.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI): The discipline of developing and applying computer systems to produce characteristics usually associated with intelligent behavior, e.g., understanding language, learning from experience, logical reasoning, problem solving, and explaining its own behavior.
  • Automation: The use of electronic or mechanical machines to perform routine functions with minimal human intervention.
  • Base: A permanently occupied center for people on the Moon, Mars, or in space that provides life support and work facilities; bases would evolve from outposts (See Outpost).
  • Biosphere: The total environment of Earth that supports self-sustaining and self-regulating human, plant, and animal life, or an artificial dosed-ecology system in which biological systems provide mutual support and recycling of air, water, and food.
  • Carbonaceous: A type of meteorite or asteroid containing significant percentages of water, carbon and nitrogen-essential elements, when processed, that would permit humankind to increase its independence from Earth.
  • Closed-Ecology Life Support System (CELSS): A mechanical or biological system that recycles the air, water, and food needed to sustain human fife on a space station or base.
  • Cycling Spaceship: A space station designed for human habitation that permanently cycles back and forth between the orbits of Earth and Mars.
  • Ecosystem: A community of humans, plants, and animals together with their physical environment.
  • Galaxy: An irregular, elliptic, disk- or spiral-shaped system containing billions of stars. Earth is situated in a spiral-shaped galaxy called the Milky Way, one of billions of galaxies in the Universe.
  • Geostationary Earth Orbit: A circular orbit approximately 22,300 miles above Earth’s surface in the plane of the equator. An object in such an orbit rotates at the same rate as the planet and therefore appears to be stationary with regard to any point on Earth’s surface. It is a specific type of geosynchronous orbit.
  • Heliosphere: The large region of space influenced by the Sun’s solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. This vast sea of electrical plasma activity may extend as far as 10 billion miles from the Sun, affecting the magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres of Earth and other Solar System bodies.
  • Inner Solar System: The part of the Solar System between the Sun and the main asteroid belt. It includes the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars-distinct from the outer planets, Jupiter,
    Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
  • Libration Points: Unique points in space, influenced by gravitational forces of neighboring bodies, in which objects with the correct initial location and velocity remain fixed without significant expenditure of propellant. They are also called Lagrange points, after the French mathematician who calculated their existence.
  • Magnetosphere: A region surrounding a planet, extending out thousands of miles and dominated by the planet’s magnetic field so that charged particles are trapped in it.
  • Mass-Driver: An electromagnetic accelerating device for propelling solid or liquid material, for example, from Earth’s Moon into space, or for providing propulsion by ejecting raw lunar soil or asteroidal material as reaction mass.
  • Microgravity: An extremely low level of gravity. As experienced by shuttle crews, for example, one millionth the level of gravity on Earth’s surface.
  • Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle: A device used much like a "harbor tug" in ship operations, with remotely controlled manipulator arms to handle spacecraft and refueling operations with great care.
  • Outpost: An initial location to provide shelter for a few people on the Moon or Mars; it may not be permanently occupied.
  • Robotics: The use of automated machines to replace human effort, although they may not perform functions in a humanlike manner.
  • SCRAMJET: A supersonic combustion ramjet engine which can operate in the hypersonic region of flight.
  • Settlement: A permanent community of humans in space, or on the surface of the Moon or Mars with life support, living quarters and work facilities; it will evolve from a base (See Base).
  • Spaceport: A transportation center in space which acts like an airport on Earth. It provides a transport node where passengers or cargo can switch from one spaceship to another, and a facility where spaceships can be berthed, serviced, and repaired.
  • Specific Impulse: A measurement of engine performance. It is the ratio of the pounds of thrust produced by the engine, minus the drag from the engine, per pounds of fuel flowing through the
    engine each second.
  • Tele-operator: A system equipped with its own propulsion system, television camera, and equipment that can be remotely operated (See Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle).
  • Telepresence: The use of real-time video communications coupled with remote control techniques
    which would provide an operator on Earth's surface or other location with the capability to carryout complex operations in space or on the surface of a planet or moon.
  • Telescience: Conducting scientific operations in remote locations by tele-operation.
  • Unpiloted: A spacecraft without human operators.

 

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PIONEERING THE SPACE FRONTIER:     Table of Contents


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